Metamorphic Petrology & Thermodynamics


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This course is a basic to advance introduction for the post graduate students in petrology. Geology is plagued by the problem of in accessibility; they see only the tiny fraction of the rocks that composes the Earth. During the processes of uplift and the erosion on the surface, but their exact place of origin is vague. As a result, a large proportion of our information about earth is indirectly coming from analysis of subsurface materials, geophysical studies, or experiments conducted at variable temperature and pressure. Metamorphic rocks are the most common rock type on Earth, and their study allows us to put constraints on the pressure, stress and temperature conditions in the crust and mantle, and on the bulk composition in these environments. Metamorphism affects rocks in three ways; it changes their mineralogy, it changes their shape, and it can change their composition.
In this course we will look at the processes behind metamorphism, the description and classification of metamorphic rocks, and how to extract information from metamorphic rocks and minerals to determine the conditions under which they formed. Metamorphism means change in form. In geology the term is used to refer to a solid-state recrystallization of earlier igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic rocks. Such study includes description and classification of rocks as well as interpretation of their origin. Petrology is subdivided into three major rock types: Igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. Igneous and metamorphic petrology are combined, due to the similarity of approach and principle involved during their formation. As per the syllabus of UGC based on CBCS, I henceforth use the term Metamorphic petrology and thermodynamics is to study metamorphic rocks and their processes of formation within one single paper as basic to advance for the post graduate students.
This course deals with the naturally occurring rocks in field as well as laboratory analysis data that provide sufficient information how they occur in the nature. It gives idea of modern petrological theories which are widely accepted for their origin. The course emphasis the petrology which cover the Geology & its Perspective, Carrier in geology, Structure and classification of the silicate minerals along with Definition of metamorphism, Factors controlling metamorphism, variables / agents and types / kinds of metamorphism – contact, regional, fault zone metamorphism, impact metamorphism. Types and classification based on metamorphic agent. Regional metamorphism and paired metamorphic belts with reference to the theory of plate tectonics. Mineralogical phase rule for closed and open systems; Nature of metamorphic reactions; Concept and classification of metamorphic facies and facies series; Introduction to ultrahigh temperature and ultrahigh pressure metamorphism. Metamorphic zones, isograde and reaction isograde, Concept of classification of metamorphic facies, facies-series and grade, Structure and textures of metamorphic rocks; chemographic projection, graphical representation of metamorphic minerals assemblages; ACF, AKF, AFM and others diagram.
Description of each facies of low, medium to high pressure and very high pressure with special reference to characteristic minerals, subdivision into zones / subfacies, mineral assemblages; Metamorphic reactions and pressure – temperature conditions of metamorphism. Regional metamorphism of pelitic; calcareous, basic and ultra basic rocks and Thermal metamorphism of calcareous and pelitic rocks. Schrienemakers rule and construction of petrogenetic grids; Metamorphic differentiation, anatexis and origin of migmatites in the light of experimental studies. Laws of thermodynamics; Gibb’s free energy, entropy; ∆G of metamorphic reactions (solid-solid and dehydration reactions); Geothermobarometry and PT paths. Petrographic details of some important metamorphic rocks such as - slate, phyllite, schists, gneiss, quartzite, marble, charnockite, leptynite, khnodalite etc.
The course definitly provides better understanding to students for the processes and principles involved during the origin and evolution of the metamorphic rocks. The course contains video, text, assignment, quiz, case studies, references etc and I hope it will be useful for the geology students within and outside India. Last but not least, I highly accept any comments, questions or suggestion for the improvement of this course.



Duration of Course id 16 Week.

Week 1 :
W1 Introduction, W1D1 Geology and it’s perspective, W1D2 Carrer in geology, W1D3 Silicate mineral classification, W1D4 Metamorphic petrology an Overview, W1D5 Assignments, W1D6 Weekly tests

Week 2 :W2 Week Introduction (Metamorphic Petrology), W2D1 - Definition of metamorphism (Metamorphic Petrology), W2D2 Limits of metamorphism (Metamorphic Petrology), W2D3 Factor controlling metamorphism (Metamorphic Petrology), W2D4 Assignments (Metamorphic Petrology & Thermodynamics), W2D5 Assignment (Metamorphic Petrology & Thermodynamics), W2D6 Weekly test (Metamorphic Petrology & Thermodynamics)

Week 3 :W3 Introduction, W3D1 - Types of metamorphism, W3D2 – Zone of Metamorphism, W3D3 – Grade of metamorphism, W3D4 - assignment, discussion and forum activities. W3D5 - assignment, discussion and forum activities and finally W3D6 - week

Week 4 :W4 Introduction, W4D1 – Concept of metamorphic facies, W4D2 – Type of metamorphic facies, W4D3 – Metamorphic facies series, W4D4 - Plate tectonic and metamorphic facies series, W4D5 - assignment, discussion and forum activities, and finally W4D6 - weekly test

Week 5 :W5 Introduction, W5D1 - Phase Rules, W5D2 - Gibbs phase Rule, W5D3 - Goldschmidt’s Mineralogical Phase Rule, W5D4 - Phase diagram for metamorphic mineral assemblages, ACF diagrams. W5D5 - assignment, discussion and forum activities W5D6 - weekly test

Week 6 :
W6 Introduction, W6D1 – AKF diagram, W6D2 – AFM Projection, W6D3 – A’F’M’ diagram, W6D4 – CaO-MgO-SiO2 & Al2O3-MgO-SiO2 diagrams, W6D5 - assignment, discussion and forum activities W6D6 - weekly test

Week 7 :W7 Introduction, W7D1 – Parent composition of metamorphic rocks, W7D2 – Metamorphic Rocks & Their nomenclature, W7D3 – Metamorphic reactions, W7D4 – Schreinemakers Rules, W7D5 - Assignment, discussion and forum activities W7D6 - Weekly test

Week 8 :W8 Introduction, W8D1- Facies of low pressure: Albite Epidote Hornfels Facies; W8D2 Hornblende - Hornfels Facies; W8D3 Pyroxene – Hornfels Facies, W8D4 Assignment and Interaction/Forum activity; W8D5 Assignment and Interaction/Forum activity, along with every day quiz, assignment, and finally W8D6 weekly test

Week 9 :W9 Introduction, W9D1- Sanidinite Facies; W9D2 - Zeolite Facies; W9D3 - Green Schist Facies, W9D4 - Assignment and Interaction/Forum activity; W9D5 Assignment and Interaction/Forum activity, along with every day quiz, assignment, and finally W9D6- weekly test
Week 10 :W10 Introduction, W10D1- Amphibolite facies; W10D2 – Granulite Facies; W10D3 – de Waard, 1965 classification for granulite, W10D4 - Assignment and Interaction/Forum activity; W10D5 Assignment and Interaction/Forum activity, along with every day quiz, assignment, and finally W10D6 weekly test

Week 11 :W11 Introduction, : W11D1- Origin of charnockite; W11D2 – Blue schist facies; W11D3 – Eclogite facies, W11D4 - Assignment and Interaction/Forum activity; W11D5 Assignment and Interaction/Forum activity, along with every day quiz, assignment, and finally W11D6 week will be ending with weekly test

Week 12 :W12 Introduction, W12D1- Regional metamorphism of pelitic rocks; W12D2 – Regional metamorphism of mafic and basic rocks; W12D3 – Regional metamorphism of calcareous rocks; W12D4 – Regional metamorphism of ultramafic or ultrabasic rocks; W12D5 Assignment and Interaction/Forum activity, along with every day quiz, assignment, and finally W12D6 week will be ending with weekly test.

Week 13 :W13 Introduction, W13D1 - Thermal metamorphism of calcareous rocks; W13D2 - Thermal metamorphism of pelitic hornfels; W13D3 - Thermal metamorphism of basic or mafic rocks;;W13D4 - Thermal metamorphism of ultramafic or ultrabasic rocks. W13D5 - Assignments, discussion and forum activitie and finally W13D6 - week will be ending with weekly test along with every day quiz and assignments
.Week 14 :W14 Introduction, W14D1 - Migmatite, along with Quiz and Assignment; W14D2 - Crustal Melting and Granitic/Felsic magma, along with Quiz and Assignment; W14D3 - Metasomatism, along with Quiz and Assignment; W14D4 - Metamorphic Differentiation, along with Quiz and Assignment. W14D5 - Assignments, discussion and forum activities and finally W14D6 - Week will be ending with weekly test along with every day quiz and assignments

Week 15 :
W15 Introduction, W15D1 – Structure of Metamorphic Rocks; W15D2 – Texture of Metamorphic Rocks; W15D3 - Textures & Microstrurctures of Deformed Rocks; W15D4 – Metamorphic P-T path, W15D5 - Assignments, discussion and forum activities and finally W15D6 - week will be ending with weekly test along with every day quiz and assignments.

Week 16 :W16 Introduction, W16D1 – Law of Thermodynamics; W16D2 – Geothermometer; W16D3 - Geobarometer; W16D4 – application of Geothermobarometer, W16D5 - Assignments, discussion and forum activities and finally W16D6 - week will be ending with weekly test along with every day quiz and assignments.