Bitumen market, generalities, the manufacture of bitumen, transport, uses of bitumen, main developments and alternatives
-Origins, history, definition, terminology | market per geographical areas, figures of consumption, main producers, capacities of production, ranking, main flows between areas | global development of motorised transport - cars, airplane - was one of the single most development of 20-21st centuries | global development of buidings, roofing and other applications of bitumen | difference between bitumen, cement and tar coal. Advantages and drawback of each | different ways of transport of bitumen and present the supply chain diagram and restrictions. ADR Regulation | sampling, handling and safety principles. Hazard from handling hot bitumen is thermal burns.
Constitution, structure and characterization of bitumen - specifications-rheology
-Schematic constitution and structure of bitumen, relationship between structure and rheology | Performance tests | Bitumen 3 states | Penetration test EN 1426 & Softening Point EN 142 | viscosity measurement EN 12596, EN 12595, Explanation of breaking point Fraass measurement EN 12593 | testing Binder after RTFOT, after RTFOT and PAV | Euopean specifications and process of revision | Viscosity based standards (ASTM D3381 | Deformation and flow. Elasticity, plasticity, visoc-elasticity. Newtonian, Non-Newtonian behaviour. Stress-strain response, shear modulus and phase angle. | Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR) and Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) | Superpave specifications.
Modifications of bitumen and applications (roads, roofing,…)
-Modifications using polymers. Performance of PmB. Elastic recovery test. | of types of modifications of bitumen: CRMB, warm mix asphalt, temperature reduction | Bitumen emulsions, their components, manufacture, storage, handling, properties, classification, uses | surface treatments | design of pavements and types of aggregates | fundamental tests, the simulative tests (fatigue test, rutting test, giratory compactor,…) | interest of full scale testing of asphalt mix: example of IFSTTAR carousel | Hot mix plants, transport, laying and compaction of asphalt mix | physical characteristics and industrial applications for sealing.
Health, Safety, Environment & Quality concerns regarding bitumen, and examples of research & innovation actions
-Dangers and risks involved with road-building bitumens | Dangers and risks involved with industrial bitumens. | Innovation in the frame of safety with bitumen | Research and Innovation applied for recycling of asphalt pavement, of the use of waste asphalt pavement containing bitumen and not tar, for manufacturing new product.| Research and Innovation applied for bio bitumen Algoroute program and other origins of bitumen | Research and Innovation applied for environmental issues and life cycle inventory (LCI | Key areas for the Research and Innovation applied for bitumen new tests methods | Road of the future:: 5th generation road.