Genetics and Genomics


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This course is designed in such a way that any biology student who has completed 10+2 is able to assimilate all modules included in this course. It starts with a proper introduction to genetics and genomics, then with the sessions dealing classical genetics and further to sessions of advanced genetics. This will enable the students to understand how the hereditary information in DNA controls what an organism looks like and how it works. The knowledge of genetics and genomics is also fundamental to an understanding of how organisms, populations and species evolve. The course will help the student to take up further some upcoming and much sort after post graduate courses based on the topics such as medical genetics, developmental and behavioural genetics, bioinformatics, environmental genetics, genomics etc. The course develops through the following topics: • Principle of Genetic Transmission • Extensions of Mendelism • Quantitative Genetics • The chromosomal basis of Mendelism • Chromosomal Variations & Linkage, Crossing over and chromosome mapping • Extranuclear Inheritance • Population Genetics and Evolution • Structure of Genetic Material • Replication of DNA &Molecular Mechanism of Recombination • Mutation • DNA Repair Mechanism • Transcription and RNA Processing in prokaryotes and eukaryotes • Genetic Code and Translation Once a student complete this course, he/she will be a thorough with the classical and advanced genetics and will be equipped to take up any advanced post graduate programmes based on genetics such as medical genetics, developmental and behavioural genetics, bioinformatics, environmental genetics, genomics etc.


COURSE LAYOUT WEEK - 1 History of Genetics, Scope and significance of genetics Mendels’ Experiments, Symbols and terminology, Principle of dominance and segregation, Principle of independent assortment, Mendelian inheritance and probability   WEEK - 2 Allelic variation and gene function- Incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles Gene action-from genotype to phenotype. Gene interaction, penetrance, expressivity Epistasis, pleiotropy, interaction with environment.   WEEK - 3 Continuous variation, Quantitative traits - additive alleles, calculating the number of polygenes, significance of polygenic control. Heritability in broad sense and narrow sense ; Artificial selection.     WEEK - 4 Chromosomes – chromosome number, sex chromosome Chromosome theory of inheritance - Experimental evidence, non-disjunction as proof of chromosome theory, chromosomal basis of Mendel’s principles of segregation and independent assortment. Sex linked genes in humans - Haemophilia, colour blindness, fragile X. Dosage compensation of X- linked genes. Hyper activation of X-linked gene in male drosophila, Inactivation of X-linked gene in female. Sex chromosome and sex determination - Human, Drosophila, other animals.   WEEK - 5 Morphology of chromosomes, Structural and Numerical Variations Linkage, Recombination, Crossing over (Mitotic crossing over) Chromosome mapping (two point and three point test cross) Tetrad analysis.

WEEK - 6 Maternal Inheritance, Mitochondrial- Snail, poky and petite Chloroplast – leaf variegation in Mirabilis jalapa, Lojap.   WEEK - 7 Population and gene pool - Allelic frequency, Hardy – Weinberg law - _ Changes in genetic structure of population Mutation, genetic drift (causes and effect), migration, natural selection. Non-random mating (heterosis)   WEEK - 8 Introduction – Nature of Genetic material- Discovery of DNA as genetic material (Griffith, Avery, Hershey Chase) Strucutre of nucleic acid (A, B and Z model), Super coiling and Topoisomerase, Types of RNA- Structural and functional.   WEEK - 9 Salient features of prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA replication. Homologous recombination, Site specific recombination. Models of recombination (Holiday model, Double strand break, etc.)   WEEK - 10 Types of mutation, Causes of mutation - Physical and chemical mutagens Spontaneous and Induced mutations Molecular basis of mutations   WEEK - 11 Excision Mechanism – Nucleotide, Base Post Replication Repair- mismatch repair, recombination repair, SOS repair. Central Dogma, Transcription in prokaryotes, eg: Lac, Tryp operon.   WEEK - 12 Transcription in eukaryotes, RNA processing – nuclear splicing rRNA and tRNA processing   WEEK - 13 Salient features of genetic code Translation in prokaryotes Translation in eukaryotes, Post-translational modification